Can Nuclear Propulsion Take Us to Mars?

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Writer/Narrator: Brian McManus
Editor: Dylan Hennessy
Animator: Mike Ridolfi
Sound: Graham Haerther
Fact Checker: Charlie Garcia
Thumbnail: Simon Buckmaster

[7] Rocket Propulsion Elements
[14] &
Thank you to AP Archive for access to their archival footage.

Music by Epidemic Sound:


Thank you to my patreon supporters: Adam Flohr, Henning Basma, Hank Green, William Leu, Tristan Edwards, Ian Dundore, John & Becki Johnston. Nevin Spoljaric, Jason Clark, Thomas Barth, Johnny MacDonald, Stephen Foland, Alfred Holzheu, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz Binghaith, Brent Higgins, Dexter Appleberry, Alex Pavek, Marko Hirsch, Mikkel Johansen, Hibiyi Mori. Viktor Józsa, Ron Hochsprung


  • Real Engineering
    Real Engineering22 hari yang lalu

    Woops. The outro audio revealed Real Sciences next video by mistake. It's gonna be a banger though, ye should subscribe.

  • A O

    A O

    2 hari yang lalu

    Another great video! I only know very very little about rocket science but have learned alot just from this one video. You mentioned not understanding at first how lower molecular weight creates higher specific impulse, and I don't know at all, but does it have anything to do with when propelling a lower mass molecule you "use/waste" less energy to propel that molecule than you would need to use to propel a higher mass molecule and the fact that you only have so much potential energy to begin with? Also would I wonder if it would be possible to carry water on board a craft, then use electrolysis to split the water into oxygen and hydrogen? Then the water would be potentially serving double purpose for fuel and producing breathable atmosphere on board? What little I know about electrolysis you would need potentially sacrificial anode and cathode elements and a certain ph/chemistry of the water to produce clean H and O. Oh I just remembered the water would need an electrolyte to be able to produce electrolysis, so that could interfere with getting pure hydrogen and oxygen from the water... Yea I'm really hoping you respond to clarify this. Again great video, great work and THANK YOU for producing great content.

  • redamatter


    2 hari yang lalu

    Slate oversight nuclear power would not be the only thing that I'd be able to do that fusion power would also be able to do it but as you probably know that's not really currently within reach

  • mehmet demir

    mehmet demir

    7 hari yang lalu

    questions: 1. why can't an electron gun like one used in cathode tube be used to provide thrust? in that case there would not a need for a propellant. 2. fission reaction releases neutrons at speeds around 20000 km/s. can't that be directly used to provide thrust?

  • Solar's Storys

    Solar's Storys

    9 hari yang lalu

    @wisdom seeker good work,

  • Doesn't Jump to conclusions

    Doesn't Jump to conclusions

    10 hari yang lalu


  • john delong
    john delong48 menit yang lalu

    Going to mars is a colossal waste. It benefits no one except startrek nerds.There are people on earth who dont know were thier next meal is coming from.These space cadets should find something productive to do with thier billions.

  • CrimsonBlitz
    CrimsonBlitzJam Yang lalu

    Genuine question. Would a Carbon nanotube kind of mesh be able to stop hydrogen molecules from permeating through the material? or is the carbon nano structure still too large and allows hydrogen to just go through?

  • iBorg iwc
    iBorg iwcJam Yang lalu

    Gota say that your equations need some work

  • Jeff Spartz
    Jeff Spartz3 jam yang lalu

    "Dark Side of the Moon"? Say "Far side of the moon" 50 times as punishment!

  • iBorg iwc

    iBorg iwc

    Jam Yang lalu

    Insular humans

  • iBorg iwc

    iBorg iwc

    Jam Yang lalu

    the moon does not have a "dark side" from any perspective other than that of a time critical phase perspective from the Earth.

  • william Cranston
    william Cranston4 jam yang lalu

    Why not just store hydrogen as water.. your nuclear reactor can use water to generate electricity to separate the hydrogen from the water and I feel like extra oxygen isn’t a bad thing in space. Have the oxygen surrounding the tank of hydrogen so if any leaks out of the container it’ll bond with the oxygen and make water. Idk I’m sure there’s flaws to this. I’m just taking a stab at it with little knowledge of the whole deal.

  • Rhine0Cowboy
    Rhine0Cowboy5 jam yang lalu

    @2:34 you mention "the dark side of the moon", as if it's synonymous with the far side of the moon, which it is not, the far side is basking in sunlight every two weeks, just like the near side.

  • doliio volay
    doliio volay7 jam yang lalu

    It is hard for me to comprehend how brilliant these people are!

  • roisahud
    roisahud7 jam yang lalu


  • T Borg
    T Borg8 jam yang lalu

    I think humans will live in space this century but,unfortunately,I will not be alive to see it. Mars will be first then who knows where we will go.

  • doliio volay

    doliio volay

    7 jam yang lalu

    NASA's needs. Not requiring a fission reactor to produce energy. More like a nuclear battery.

  • Benmore Peak
    Benmore Peak9 jam yang lalu

    Great video, but cough*themoonhasnodarkside*cough....

  • drew poteet
    drew poteet10 jam yang lalu

    id rather hear trump say china than hear this guy says mars lol

  • 1959Berre
    1959Berre15 jam yang lalu

    It is not "Mers", it is "Mars", with an A.

  • Aldo Arroyo
    Aldo Arroyo15 jam yang lalu

    Fluids or qed but mostly chemistry :/

  • Tavengwa Sipapate
    Tavengwa Sipapate16 jam yang lalu

    Can ion drive thrusters be used to make flying cars?

  • ian turpin
    ian turpin17 jam yang lalu

    There is a third nuclear option. Actually exploding atomic bombs as a means of propulsion.

  • Black Zero
    Black Zero18 jam yang lalu

    You have bigger problems to deal with on earth

  • KGB
    KGB19 jam yang lalu

    You forgot to list the songs in the description...

  • truerthanyouknow
    truerthanyouknow19 jam yang lalu

    I feel like I just wandered into an Intro to Interplanetary Space Domination course.

  • Dill ster
    Dill ster20 jam yang lalu

    Great video 👍

  • Ken Jackson
    Ken Jackson20 jam yang lalu

    Who would want to live on Mars? It doesn't have an atmosphere thick enough to burn up meteorite showers, doesn't have enough gravity to maintain bone health. The low atmospheric pressure, lack of oxygen and low temperature will require wearing a suit outside, which will get banged up, stinky and tiresome to wear. There's no magnetosphere to protect from radiation, no plants or animals to eat and no arable soil to farm. And worst of all, it's *FREEZING all the time.* Isn't that romantic?

  • I.C. Gedye
    I.C. Gedye21 jam yang lalu

    A very clear way of explaining such a complex subject thank you. So how far are we away from testing a nuke hybrid drive in space, and what successful ways are there in existence to safely store hydrogen long term? Could the environment of space make this easier, or could it be made up there out of water (producing oxygen also). I guess a moon base is way overdue!

  • inf11
    inf1122 jam yang lalu

    Fire in rocket engine is not a controlled explosion

  • Ken Jackson

    Ken Jackson

    20 jam yang lalu

    But it *is* picturesque speech.

  • Fred Nel
    Fred NelHari Yang lalu

    There is a better way but we still need to find it..for now I feel we are still taking chances because human mechanical tech still fails and thats dangerous in the middle of space travel lol 😉..not just that but also the elements of space pose a danger with all that fuel on board..I mean just a small peanut sized object flying through space at a massive velocity could penertrate a fuel tank and BOOM..end of that expedition deffo..were still too slow I recon lol 👀 😆

  • Terminus Est
    Terminus EstHari Yang lalu

    Water could be easier to store than hydrogen. Then nuclear power could separate the two. Hydrogen and oxygen are very useful in space. Water is also useful for protection from solar and cosmic radiation. And oxygen could be used as a fuel. The water could come from the moon. So a moon base would be useful. Hopefully, we could have a generation 4 reactor. Possibly with molten salt coolant. But sodium cooling may be better for use in space. Molten Salt Reactors on Earth could also produce Plutonium that is suitable for NASA's needs. Not requiring a fission reactor to produce energy. More like a nuclear battery.

  • Rob Davies
    Rob DaviesHari Yang lalu

    14 days to Mars via Nuclear Salt Water Rocket (Angry Astronaut) Nuclear salt Water Rocket (Scott Manley)

  • CaptainCat 15
    CaptainCat 15Hari Yang lalu

    I feel silly for not knowing ion thrusters are real. That blue glow is so eerie, but so beautiful

  • chester clarke
    chester clarkeHari Yang lalu

    so we assemble nuclear ion drive ships in space

  • snapicvs
    snapicvsHari Yang lalu

    With an ion engine, electrons get removed from xenon atoms to ionize them and the xenon atoms then get projected out the engine at extremely high speed. But what happens with all those electrons that get removed from the xenon atoms? Does the vessel end up accumulating an insane static charge?

  • twinkle152000
    twinkle152000Hari Yang lalu

    Okay this is great and all but why isn't it getting done? I understand the disdain for nuclear plants but everyone should be in agreement for nuclear powered spaceships in space. Especially to convert to electricity to fuel ion propulsion.

  • Fa Hu
    Fa HuHari Yang lalu


  • Hellscream Games
    Hellscream GamesHari Yang lalu

    Good video.

  • Steve Richter
    Steve RichterHari Yang lalu

    Can the hydrogen be stored in water molecules?

  • Ken Jackson

    Ken Jackson

    20 jam yang lalu

    Interesting. Could you split the molecules fast enough to supply the fuel?

  • Pleb Plays
    Pleb PlaysHari Yang lalu

    Ain't that the nerv nuclear engine in ksp

  • Cpt_Kodai
    Cpt_KodaiHari Yang lalu

    I'm hoping we figure out fusion soon enough that we can seriously consider fusion rockets. In particular, the ability to simply direct fusion exhaust out a nozzle is very attractive in my opinion. If we are lucky, we may do this in my lifetime.

  • Travis S.
    Travis S.Hari Yang lalu

    *Me acting like I perfectly understand what's going on but I'm actually a bumbling idiot*

  • Bill Wit
    Bill Wit2 hari yang lalu

    Nuclear engine Mars lander was designed by NASA in 1962 and was planned to land on Mars in 1972. This is VERY old news.

  • Mar
    Mar2 hari yang lalu

    Good work !

  • Robert Johnson
    Robert Johnson2 hari yang lalu

    This makes me wonder if H3 (Hydrogen 3) will actually be something used as a propellant... Edit: Wouldn’t using heat sinks for the nuclear based engines be more useful? I mean don’t dump them into space obviously but I’m saying have it run on a few or more heat sinks at one time then put them outside for them to cool down while the other heat sinks are doing it’s job and when both have reached the satisfied temperatures (one set is hot and the other is cold) swap them again using an automated system?

  • slammerjax
    slammerjax2 hari yang lalu

    Humans are direct descendants of the race that lived on Mars. Its the only thing that makes sense. Even today mankind cannot replicate building feats such as the pyramids. The only explanation is that superior technology once existed on Earth. Where else could it have come from? Mars used to be like Earth. Humans destroyed its atmosphere and colonized Earth. Mars was abandoned. Now Earth is being destroyed, and humans fantasize about going to Mars. Ironic isn't it.

  • henry hernandeez

    henry hernandeez

    2 hari yang lalu


  • slammerjax


    2 hari yang lalu

    @henry hernandeez so not true.

  • henry hernandeez

    henry hernandeez

    2 hari yang lalu

    cap we can trace out dna from other animal on earth it is a good theory but it is no true but life could have came from a asteroid that hit earth

  • rphb
    rphb2 hari yang lalu

    The question is not can, it is should, and there is a reason why no one have ever tried to fire a nuclear rocket.

  • rphb


    15 jam yang lalu

    @Ken Jackson that sounds dangerous, not as dangerous as a nuclear rocket, but dangerous enough that it got decomissioned

  • Ken Jackson

    Ken Jackson

    20 jam yang lalu

    Though there was a nuclear powered aircraft at one time.

  • Stephen Sheldon
    Stephen Sheldon2 hari yang lalu

    When are we going to Mars

  • henry hernandeez

    henry hernandeez

    2 hari yang lalu

    2030 but nasa is testing the rocket that is going to bring us there this year

  • Mohd Aamir
    Mohd Aamir2 hari yang lalu

    can u pls follow up on the analysis of hydrogen as fuel for automobiles...???

  • sohrab roshan
    sohrab roshan2 hari yang lalu


    NO NAME2 hari yang lalu


  • Aulya
    Aulya2 hari yang lalu

    This video is very fun and easy to learn, unless if you look at the comment seeing Delusional people thinking its all fake and its all CGI.

    KIKETEVECU22 hari yang lalu

    if you could only know the Truth about zero Point Energy/travel, but the mil. Ind. Comp. already tackled that long ago.

    KIKETEVECU22 hari yang lalu

    Talk to David Adair, the rocket he made the fastest rocket ever took off at 8 thousand miles in 4 seconds and I believe him because he was rocket builder since young kid >>>>> >>>

  • Ian Green
    Ian Green2 hari yang lalu

    Thinking about the space junk that has gathered and has to be tracked mostly around Earth since the 1950s, what is the effect on space vehicles and space stations encountering ion streams or other particles with high velocities that might be found in planetary or solar orbits and where will those particles go? Are they, at 40 km/s at any kind of escape velocity? Will they tend to reenter Earth's, the moon and Mars' orbits?

  • SR71BETA
    SR71BETA3 hari yang lalu

    Thumbnail shows a ship from the Martian film the Hermes. Was a good futuristic ship that NASA might build one day.

  • George Kymany
    George Kymany3 hari yang lalu

    Just a quick reminder folks, there's absolutely no escape from planet earth. Just Take good care of this beautiful world full of abundance of everything us humans and all other lives require to thrive. It's a waste of money trying to escape because it's forbidden by mother nature.

  • Mikael Marvin
    Mikael Marvin3 hari yang lalu

    i got an idea for a video... talk about memristors! those are some nanoelectronics elements that have very interesting properties and aplications

  • Amirali Boisov
    Amirali Boisov3 hari yang lalu

    Make a video about a sky hook

  • Future Technology
    Future Technology3 hari yang lalu

    Future Technology 👈

  • Dont Knowler
    Dont Knowler3 hari yang lalu

    In the nuclear powered ion drive, cannot you use xeon as reactor coolant, so that it carries heat away from the reactor into the ion drive chamber?

  • Soteriology101
    Soteriology1013 hari yang lalu

    What about Liquid Fluoride Thorium Molten Salt Reactors? They gonna use something in space that they will not allow us to use on earth?

  • Rives Doe
    Rives Doe3 hari yang lalu

    Why do we want to leave a perfectly good planet? It just seems dumb.

  • Gino
    Gino3 hari yang lalu

    What's the song that was playing around 12:00 - 12:20

    JULEMANDEN993 hari yang lalu

    Em drive were debuked by showing the warping in the system calculating its trust value. Making a new zero when warped by heat so it looked like propusion where there were non, they used another type of heat to show the error.

  • Chasing Capsaicin
    Chasing Capsaicin3 hari yang lalu

    The need for metallic hydrogen is real, really close to reality.

  • kantraxo ikol
    kantraxo ikol3 hari yang lalu

    and yet we're STILL under the delusion we can colonize it's a backyard camp trip....not gonna happen with our current tech

  • D Gillies
    D Gillies3 hari yang lalu

    xenon is a rare earth element only 1 part in 20,000,000 part in earth's atmosphere. krypton is far more common found in 1 part in 1,000,000 in earth's atmosphere.

  • Ottee2
    Ottee23 hari yang lalu

    What say you, Elon? Elon: I on it.

    MATTWER3 hari yang lalu

    Pretty amazing for a species that just figured out flight in 1903.

  • Kevin Olmeda
    Kevin Olmeda3 hari yang lalu

    Can you do a video on how the hoover dam was created. Idea came from after seeing a cringe tiktok'er trying to explain how it was impossible to build but does not bother to pay attention to the engineering of it.

  • Nelson Wong
    Nelson Wong4 hari yang lalu

    What's the song at 9:57?

  • money talks
    money talks4 hari yang lalu

    Hope not. So destructive animals like human should stay on one planet which already destroyed. Let s look at planet Earth from global view wars, famine, primitive monetary system causes poverty... and do you wanna fly on another planets? Seriously? I would say first get evolved then travel. Do not spread stupidity over the universe.

  • Cezary Krasnodębski
    Cezary Krasnodębski4 hari yang lalu

    Wonderful content!

  • Mike McCloskey
    Mike McCloskey4 hari yang lalu

    "Using gravity assists to visit our closest neighbors makes little sense". Uhm, perhaps you meant to say "RELYING upon gravity assists to visit our closest neighbors sucks". There is nothing inherently wrong with using gravity assists when they are available.

  • whiterabbitangel
    whiterabbitangel4 hari yang lalu

    isn’t space colder then the hydrogen so what’s the challenge keeping it in cryogenic temperature ?

  • DJ Ash
    DJ Ash4 hari yang lalu

    Hopefully we won’t need Nuclear Power innovation will ding a Better Way

  • VirtualEnglishStudio
    VirtualEnglishStudio4 hari yang lalu


  • Audit Recon
    Audit Recon4 hari yang lalu

    Why can’t we build spaceships in space?

  • Thegoodtom 1
    Thegoodtom 14 hari yang lalu

    The solution is simple. Stage the launch from the moon. It saves the fuel needed for escape velocity.

  • Matthew Sermons
    Matthew Sermons5 hari yang lalu

    My hope is to see Linear Magnetic Accelerators on the Moon. I see this as a practical way of getting mostly supplies to Mars and beyond. To slow down the "Packages", I envision a series of cells at the front of the craft consisting of alternating layers of Lunar Regolith and explosive charges. Basically shedding mass in the direction of travel should take the velocity down to a manageable level.

  • Baldur Vizla
    Baldur Vizla5 hari yang lalu

    Crap, it’s about temperature, reactors have low temperatures

  • Lukas w.
    Lukas w.5 hari yang lalu


  • AlrightyDave
    AlrightyDave5 hari yang lalu

    Absolutely perfect video. Love these rocket science videos. Fun to watch and even beats school in terms of how much there is to learn! Really wish schools would recognize how great your videos are and promote them.

  • dinger40
    dinger405 hari yang lalu

    Maybe but the Intergalactic laxative can.

  • Jason Snyder
    Jason Snyder5 hari yang lalu

    Some simple but hopefully effective solutions I have to some of the problems you present are: 1. Nuclear electric ion drive cargo / fuel hauler with LOX/LNG engines for short, quick delta-v burns such as orbital capture. At this maybe focus on getting a good LFTR reactor built with dual stage power generation in order to minimize radiator size and maximize power output. Even molten sodium reactors that have been run on Earth for decades would be a huge step up from light water reactors. If you have SpaceX's Starship making many trips to LEO between transfer windows, these reactors may end up being on the GWe scale. For dual stage power generation from LFTR, the main reactor loop would have molten salts. Then go through a heat exchanger to a helium loop driving gas turbines. After this use a custom phase change fluid not too unlike what they use to cool crypto mining rigs except optimized to a different temperature determined to be best for the secondary loop where it is also easy to condense back into a fluid in a closed loop when cooled (like what they do with refrigerants. Then cooled back to the optimal input temperatures through space radiators. With most of your mass on this robotic ship including as much fuel mass as possible, it opens options for what can be done with the passenger ship. 2. Use nuclear thermal for reusable rocket boosters on the crewed ship to help it break free of Earth's gravity and then fly back to LEO. Maybe even aerobrake the boosters when getting back into LEO if it makes sense to. This way a lot of your delta-v for the mission comes from rocket components that only are fueled for a short period of time and then have a long stay in Earth's orbit where they can be inspected relatively easily and prepared for the next mission in a couple of years. 3. If you end up needing to minimize the time hydrogen is stored and can't get around it, the crewed ship could do a combination of using LOX/LNG after the nuclear thermal boosters have done what they can do and separate to return to LEO and use nuclear electric like what is described above to speed along the 'coast' phase of the mission. 4. Especially if you are doing thousands of Starship launches between transfer windows like Elon Musk talks about doing, not sure why a large ship couldn't have a variety of propulsion systems on board and dedicated engines for each propulsion system? 5. While not a topic of this video, going to large transfer ships to Mars can also help tackle a number of other issues with making the journey to Mars and beyond such as radiation shielding as surface area is a square factor where volume is a cubic factor, artificial gravity as with size you can make slower spinning drums to get the same amount of centripetal force as smaller rings, and fuel to Mars as a big robotic cargo and fuel hauler using ion propulsion can efficiently move that fuel into Mars' orbit. I suppose this would also kill your very long ship graphic as the surface area minimization deal for radiation shielding as well as artificial gravity pushes the design to more of a fat cylinder or even a double bubble where two counter-rotating cylinders are placed next to each other so they can counter-balance the torque of spinning up and down as well as providing good stability to keep the ship oriented correctly. With a stationary outer shell around the cylinder(s) containing the radiation shield, which itself would probably largely be composed of supplies and then compressed garbage / waste as the mission continues on, there would be less structural stress on the rotating cylinder(s) to hold all of this shielding material.

  • Daniel De Carufel
    Daniel De Carufel5 hari yang lalu

    I do not know if it can take us to Mars but one thing is sure is that it will take us Hell ,Destruction and DEATH.

  • Jacob Greer
    Jacob Greer5 hari yang lalu

    Taking screenshots and going to study this! Gonna watch this over and over again lol

  • JC Maxie
    JC Maxie5 hari yang lalu

    44k stupid blind people!

  • Bum Booz
    Bum Booz5 hari yang lalu

    A nuclear weapon will send us to kingdom come though.

  • r vanden
    r vanden5 hari yang lalu

    Great video. Gives a very good bird's eye view of the problem of propulsion in space. I like the hybrid ion/ntr idea. Assuming the long-term hydrogen storage problem can be solved, how long would a non-gravity assisted flight that would go into orbit around Sedna take using such an ion/ntr hybrid? Assume a payload mass of ~1,000 kg. I'd love to see a calculation of a mission like that. Mars is not the only game it town.

  • IDNeon357
    IDNeon3575 hari yang lalu

    I solved your Hydrogen problem. Store Hydrogen as H2O. Use the nuclear energy to break H2O into 2H2 and O2. Use O2 for oxygen replenishment and use the H2 for fuel.

  • Tl Cheeto
    Tl Cheeto5 hari yang lalu

    Uhuhhh he said Uranus Beavis...

  • Travelling Shadurs
    Travelling Shadurs5 hari yang lalu


    STEVEN R6 hari yang lalu

    👎 Pushed a bit to hard... Brilliant

  • tash
    tash6 hari yang lalu

    why he keeps calling it mers

  • Kay Uwe Böhm
    Kay Uwe Böhm6 hari yang lalu

    A380 mit 4 Flügeln vorne höher gesetzt. Erstmal in Modellbaugröße trotzdem erstes Endprodukt eine militärische Drohne mit drehbaren Antrieben an Flügeln so schneller und sparsamer bei Panzerhaubitze mit 50kg SBX und oder Lasermarker für 155mm Vulcano Munition und 700kg MBDA CBN CNG O2 Luft Rakete erst mit CO2 aus Panzer oder Torpedröhre hoch geworfen. Nächstes Produkt zum verdienen A380 mit CNG billig und sicherer geflogen für vertikales starten mit O2 aus Tank geboostet. Dann Hypersonic mit Hülle aus TiB2 Vakuum oder Gaskammerisolierung mit dünnen Trennwänden zu Titan Legierung Hülle innen dabei innen gekühlt mit CNG Gasentspannung im All dann mit O2 aus Tank weiter. Titan statt zu teuer über Kroll Cl2 Reduktion von TiO2 über H2 zu TiH2 bei Hitze und CaH Katalysator dann über 1000°C erhitzt die vollständige Zersetzung zu Ti und H2 gleich heiß Legierung und Walzen dazu usw. City Maglev System über Straßen usw. mit kleinen Kabinen (4 ?) und Containern die nonstop automatisch von Seitgleis zu Seitgleis fahren inkl. einfädeln mit Touchscreen/Handy Zieleingabe und Zusteigen optional. Seitlich bewegliche Kufen von oben mit Neodym und auf 1 cm geregelt Stabmagneten zwischen rechts und links nach innen offenen U-Profilen aus Stahl unten magnetisiert für Gegenfeld dazu auch seitlich magnetisiert abwechselnd in Richtung für Linearmotor und seitlich beidseitig mit Kufen geregelt anziehend bei Weiche nur an eine Seite gegen abstoßende Magnete auf anderer Seite aus U-Profil raus nur von unten her mit da starkem Gegenmagnetismus hoch haltend.

  • Kay Uwe Böhm
    Kay Uwe Böhm6 hari yang lalu

    Yes but not that way in video ! Build a starship using Hg ring accelerators like small LHC with counter rotator ring shooting into water tubes for ship acceleration in shooting direction from linear slow down not loosing any Hg mass and cold fusion from Hg H->H punsh or Li-7 Th HTR as energy source with CO2 turbines cf compressor backflow cooling of all thermal isolated that way standing eternal in air any planet or altitude slowly up with 1g+ after less 1 year near c in space with biotop water tank cells and el. mg. shield etc. CO2 can be easy captured out of air with gas centrifuge since more heavy than O2 & N2 but together with also heavy Ar argon but if left inside exrract not reacting with H2 like CO2 to CH4 for CNG production in zero carbon cycle using electrolyse H2 with energy from water power, nuclear RBN Th pebble bed HTR or cold fusion power shooting Hg into H2O or aircondition not using but delivering energy and water out of air sucked with cf compressor cooled with CO2 for near 100% efficient CO2 compressor backflow cooled turbines. @John Goldsworthy Hg spallation if shoot in H2O can be used also for Hg-197 epsilon decay gold. Letters turned dog was god. Tesla Inc. financial quarter 4 2020 results out today ! Hurricanes to stop letting up black carbon soot in eye chimney into upper system until darkened heated by sun until eye wall broken. @John Goldsworthy Hg spallation if shoot in H2O can be used also for Hg-197 epsilon decay gold. Letters turned dog was god. Tesla Inc. financial quarter 4 2020 results out today ! Hurricanes to stop letting up black carbon soot in eye chimney into upper system until darkened heated by sun until eye wall broken. Booster also reusable already ? Small maneuvering engines to see in video already finished ? Why docked at engine part for refueling ? Heat shield added for earth and mars landing ? After landing first time on mars or moon not falling to side ? Own design approach was about thick A320 with 4 wings at front higher outside turnable with engines starting and landing flat also for more lift iff weight same power on normal airport on mars vertical start and landing after transition. Also inside uncooled high pressure tanks for CH4+O2 and rocket engines with swiveld in air from cone inlet saving O2. Shell out of TiB2+isolation+Ti alloy. Isolation material air distance or nano tube fibre orthogonal isolating parallel heat moving or inert gas foamed stone etc. etc. ? Better all canceled for big ship that can stand any altitude in air on earth or any planet slowly up and down with 1g+ acceleration after less 1 year near c in space with eternal survival inside not needing anything from outside only a little condensed water for cold fusion energy but high cell tank shield biotop water reserve also for plancton and fish etc. with combination of Hg H>H punsh fusion in H2O shooting Hg from crossed double el. mg. counter ring accelerators into water tubes with room also attached to rotating rings and CO2 tesla turbines with cf compressor backflow cooling of all taking not loosing any heat. Inside H2O electrolyse O2 and H2 with CO2 to CH4 and H2O then CH4 used or burned away for CO2/O2 regulation added to photosynthese biotop, generator, positrons torpedos, liquid metal beam gun etc.

  • Lin Yen Chin
    Lin Yen Chin6 hari yang lalu

    Any is pronounced en-ee not "ah-knee." Gravity asist in plural is just the same as singular; assist. *Mouth-breather overuse of the suffix "s," is vile.*

  • Lin Yen Chin
    Lin Yen Chin6 hari yang lalu

    Thanks, mouth-breathing beast.

  • Leshaun Jenkins
    Leshaun Jenkins6 hari yang lalu

    make me think about the future of Black America! what have we contribute to human progress.. make me feel sad!

  • DalejMobile Dalej
    DalejMobile Dalej6 hari yang lalu

    space is cold. just keep the hydrogen away from the sun and we're cool.

  • Chaos X Otaku
    Chaos X Otaku6 hari yang lalu

    If heat is a problem for ion thrusters why not use that heat with another combustion engine to expell that heat

  • Shauka Hodan
    Shauka Hodan6 hari yang lalu

    offered a chance to teach at the Polish National Academy of Mathematics in 1976 but the US Department of Energy would not allow it.

    THE OTHERGUY6 hari yang lalu

    What about Nuclear Salt Water Rockets? Basically the rocket uses a continuous nuclear explosion to propel itself forward unlike a nuclear pulse rocket that uses multiple explosions. The performance of a NSWR is insane with an exhaust velocity of 66km/s and a specific impulse of 6,730 seconds and thrust similar to a chemical rocket. (Just don't use it to get off a planet's surface)

  • Shauka Hodan

    Shauka Hodan

    6 hari yang lalu

    hydrogen when needed, and not only can that oxygen be used by the crew but also as a chemical thrust which may possibly speed it up even more

  • Star Commander
    Star Commander6 hari yang lalu

    You should have said far side of the moon. The sun shines on all sides of the moon just like the earth. Only time the far side is totally in the dark is when we have a full moon .